Posture is a body attitude and is the position of the body in the space when you are sitting or standing. The maintenance and the control of posture are a set of interactions between muscle-skeletal, visual, vestibular, and skin systems. It is known that posture is a set of interactions between a muscle-skeletal system with afferent and efferent pathways of the central nervous system and whose main role is to keep your body in a state of muscle-skeletal balance, protecting the supporting structures of the body against injury or progressive deformity.

In humans, three physiological curves balance the spine: the cervical and lumbar lordosis convex forward, and the dorsal kyphosis concave forward. In humans, three physiological curves balance the spine: the cervical and lumbar lordosis convex forward, and the dorsal kyphosis concave forward. Several factors contribute to the posture, including neurophysiological, biomechanical, and psycho-emotive factors, linked to the evolution of the species.

Some studies show that among different skeletal anomalies, thoracic kyphosis, flat back, kypholordotic posture, Scoliosis, genus varum, genus valgum, foot flat, and haluxe valgus are the most common (1).


If anyone has a lordosis or increase in curvature at the lower back, people may say that they have the lower cross syndrome. In such cases, anterior pelvic tilt (APT) occurs, and the belly is facing anteriorly. APT didn’t show any correlation with pain, in fact, has been shown the presence of APT in healthy males and females with any specific pain correlation. The failure to find significant relationships might impart prove to be due to the fact that within normal asymptomatic populations anterior tilt is common and not unique to pathology (2).

Back pain has been associated with Scoliosis, in fact, Sato et al conducted a large-scale cross-sectional epidemiological study in which 43,630 students were screened for scoliosis. The authors reported a back pain prevalence of 58.8% in scoliotic patients. In this group, back pain lasted longer and was associated with more frequent episodes (3). Another study has found a correlation between hyperkyphosis and neck pain, in fact, the degree of dorsal hyperkyphosis could affect the severity of neck pain and could decrease the mobility of the neck in the extension range of motion (4).

Types of spine disorders


For sure the first step to prevent future problems is to be aware of the postural abnormalities and work on these, with an exercises program focus on increasing the strength of the core e.g. To prevent postural abnormalities instead, is important and be conscious what is the correct posture for example when we seat or when we are in standing, avoiding crossing the legs or using ergonomics if you work or study on a desk, making sure your shoulders and neck are relaxed and your glutes are perfectly aligned with the chair. Physiotherapy is an efficient treatment to improve the posture, and to be aware of what not to do, through educational tips and visual feedback e.g. Re-Education Postural Global of Souchard is an effective method to treat postural abnormalities and to prevent future complications with some specific exercise programs to do constantly and regularly.   


1) Kripa, S., Kaur, H. Identifying relations between posture and pain in lower back pain patients: a narrative review. Bull Fac Phys Ther 2634, 2021.

2) Herrington L. Assessment of the degree of pelvic tilt within a normal asymptomatic population. Man Ther,16(6):646–8, 2011

3) Sato T, Hirano T, Ito T, et al. Back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: Epidemiological study for 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan. Eur Spine J, 20:274–9, 2011

4) Eman M.A. Tantawy, Nadia A. Fayaz, Karima A. Hassan, and Ahmed H.E. Azzam, Relationship between Mechanical Neck Pain and Dorsal Hyperkyphosis

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